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Pivoting Violation Detection with Artificial Intelligence?



When it comes to sports and sports fields, for our data science team there are no obstacles, difficulties, or doubts. Enetel Solutions are, already, working on another project in the sports segment that will help any participants in sport ensure that their sports performance become better and more advanced.

An algorithm for pivoting rule violation detection has been developed with an artificial intelligence approach meaning that various machine learning and computer vision methods are involved. The algorithm was being developed using data obtained by the client. Data consists of N videos containing different pivoting scenarios of a single player on a basketball court filmed with a static camera. Crucial parts of the algorithm are: ball tracking, player tracking, and pose estimation & combining outputs of the previous two to deduce player behavior and thus predict whether the player violated a pivoting rule or not.

“Both AI and sports industries are growing rapidly individually but also their interconnection is becoming more and more important. Being one of the most popular sports globally and considering its nature, tennis is suitable for utilization of various AI methods set to recalibrate and undoubtedly improve different aspects of the game of tennis, basketball, or else - match analysis, training process, fan experience, TV broadcasting.

Mladen Canović

Data Scientist

Enetel Solutions

The developed algorithm proves that detecting non-simple rules violations in basketball is possible so it is highly likely that all non-subjective basketball rules can be solved using this approach.



While novelty is always a bit hard on the team, seeing the positive

change of implementing the new software didn't take long.

A pivot should be a controlled, balanced move performed with legs bent so that the player has good balance. A player can pivot either forward or backward (a backward pivot is also called a “drop step”) and before pivoting backward they should move their chin to their shoulder so that they can see behind them and ensure that they are not moving into trouble.

In 2017, the rules were changed in relation to a player catching the ball whilst on the move (either from a pass or to end their dribble).

This change has been described as a “zero step” or a “gather step” and applies in limited situations. By Progressing player/stop-shoot-pass After getting possession of the ball on the move (progressing), a player can now take two steps before stopping, shooting, or passing. When the ball is gathered/received when one foot touches the floor (upon dribble or after pass while progressing), the NEXT foot (AFTER gathering) to touch the floor is the first step. When the ball is gathered/received by both feet in the air, the NEXT foot to touch the floor is the first step.


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